should monitor the updated urinals to make sure the waste is
being sufficiently flushed, and that users are not throwing
foreign matter such as cigarettes or paper into the bowls.
Waterless urinals should not be installed if your sanitary sewer
piping consists of copper or copper fittings. Copper corrodes
much faster with the higher urine concentrations found with
Conventional and Water-Efficient. Although showerheads
are found mainly in residential housing units, many installations
have showers in employee and resident recreational facilities as
well. Conventional, obsolete showerheads typically use 5-8 gpm
(19-30 lpm) at 80 psi (550 kPa) when new. As they age, the flow
rate may decrease to 3-4 gpm (11.4-15 lpm) due to corrosion and
hard water deposits.
New low-flow showerheads use 2.5 gpm (9.5 lpm) or less
at the same pressure. Installing these high-efficiency
showerheads can result in savings of approximately 2-27 gallons
(7.6-102 liters) per five-minute shower, plus energy savings due
to less demand for hot water. High-efficiency showerheads are
relatively inexpensive, costing anywhere from -100. They are
also simple to install. Many good models are under and bulk-
buying can greatly reduce the unit price.
Operation and Maintenance Procedures. The following
procedures may be applied to high-efficiency showerheads as well
as conventional ones:
Locate and repair leaks,
Encourage shorter showers.
Retrofits. Although not nearly as effective as
replacement, retrofits can be used on the existing showerheads if
funds are not available to replace them with high-efficiency
units. Typical retrofit options include:
a) Pressure reduction valves reduce water pressure to
the shower which reduces the amount of water flow.