Water Softeners. Water softeners are generally used
for hot water applications such as boiler feedwater and bathing.
Water softeners are another appliance in which the water use
primarily depends on the operator. Consider eliminating water
softeners where not needed, e.g., geographical areas where the
tap water is not excessively hard, and for applications such as
drinking, landscaping, and toilet flushing.
Operation and Maintenance Procedures. The following
are water saving procedures to implement with water softeners:
a) Set the softener controls to start the softening
and regeneration process only when needed.
Replacements. New softener models may come with water-
efficient regeneration cycles.
Problems and Pitfalls. Water softeners create calcium
sludge when softening hard water, which may adversely affect the
outgoing sewer line. Check that your softener units are only
running when necessary to reduce the amount of sludge. Using a
higher quality softener salt may also help.
Washrack Cleaning Facilities. The military maintains
numerous facilities for washing and rinsing its aircraft and
vehicles. These washrack facilities encompass aircraft, wheeled
vehicles, and track vehicles (such as tanks). With so many
facilities using large amounts of water on a regular basis, they
are an excellent candidate for water conservation.
Conventional and Water-Efficient. The categories of
wash facilities can be grouped according to the type of
wastewater emitted from each. Figure 12 shows five typical
washrack groups with corresponding water requirements, typical
wastewater quantities. Newer, commercially available washrack
equipment will usually include some of the retrofits and
recycling options listed below. It is not feasible to give
precise water or cost savings for implementing these options,
since each facility is unique in its function, setup, and usage
rates. It can be said, however, that data collected from Army
installations that have implemented these measures indicates
water savings of up to 70 to 80 percent have been realized. The