21 JANUARY 2003
with a built-in reservoir tank supplies hydrostatic pressure. This takes the place of the annual
pressure test. The hydrostatic test may be conducted using a dual-pressure, temperature-
compensating pressure test conducted at the same pressure specified in paragraph 184.108.40.206.2 with
MAJCOM fuels engineer approval. The test vendor must have an independent third-party review
of the test.
220.127.116.11.1. To test the pipe, first isolate the section being tested with blind or spectacle flanges.
If DBB valves will hold the pressure, blind flanging is not required. NOTE: filter/separators
(F/Ss), thermal relief valves, safety valves, and sight glasses may have to be removed or isolated
18.104.22.168.2. Using a hand-operated hydrostatic pump, perform a static pressure test to the lesser
of 1.5 times the system dead head pressure or 1.896 megapascals (275 pounds per square inch
gauge) maximum. Use fuel to perform all tests. Pressure may also be applied with a dead-
weight tester or suitable motor-driven pump.
22.214.171.124.3. Once the pressure is stabilized, record the pressure every 15 minutes for the first
hour, every 30 minutes the second hour, then every hour thereafter. If at the end of the
minimum four-hour test (the longest test possible is recommended. preferably overnight) no
leaks are found, further testing is not required. (Use the procedure described in paragraph
126.96.36.199.) If a leak or excessive pressure change is observed, perform a flow test by
repressurizing the line with the hydrostatic pump. Measure and record the amount of fluid
required to maintain this pressure for four hours. If a leak is found, contact the environmental
flight and take action to repair it. Also, promptly notify the command fuels engineer and DESC
if additional funding is required for repairs, leak detection, and or location. A drop in pressure
could be the result of a decrease in product temperature or absorption by the product of air in
the line. To rule this out, you may repressurize the line and extend the test period to at least 24
2.4. Off-Base Pipeline Systems. Off-base pipelines are used to transfer petroleum products from
refineries to air bases, terminals, and points of distribution. They are typically owned, operated, and
maintained by civilian contractors (except for government-owned or -leased pipeline systems) and will
vary in size, construction, and operation. Additional factors influencing the operation and type of
system are terrain features (underwater, aboveground, belowground, road and railway crossing,
expansion joints) and age. Pipeline receiving facilities are typically near the base fuel storage area.
These facilities should include an isolation pit, pressure reducing valve and, when used, a pig receiving
facility. The Department of Transportation (DoT) regulates pipelines following Title 49, Code of
Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 195, Transportation of Hazardous Liquids by Pipeline, current edition.
The following subparagraphs will give a general description of these types of pipelines and O&M
procedures that apply to most systems.
2.4.1. Cross-Country Pipelines. Cross-country pipelines are often of the multi-product type. The
system consists of one pipeline and a series of pumping stations. The pumping stations have pumps,
strainers, pressure regulators, valves, scraper sand traps, and a sump tank to collect sludge and debris.
The number of pumping stations in the cross-country system depends on terrain conditions and the
distance the fuel must be transferred.
2.4.2. Off-Base Pipeline Construction. Pipelines are typically constructed of 12.1-meter (40-foot)
long steel pipes welded together and installed aboveground or underground. Pipe diameter varies
from 101 to 355 millimeters (4 to 14 inches), depending on system capacity. For a more complete