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understanding of the design and construction of pipelines, see MIL-HDBK-1022A, API RP 1102,
Steel Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways, and API Std 1104, Welding of Pipelines and
2.4.3. Operations. In an emergency and at oversea commands, Air Force personnel may be required
to take over, operate, and maintain a cross-country pipeline system. The command fuels engineer
will provide technical oversight to the BCE responsible for all maintenance of pipelines acquired by
the Air Force. Before operating a pipeline, the command fuels engineer or his delegated
representative should consider the following:
220.127.116.11. Secure all plans, system diagrams, and information possible to find the location and
function of all components (especially valves) in the system. Some installations may require a
complete engineering study to secure sufficient information for O&M.
18.104.22.168. Reports should be made to decide the necessary manpower for each installation.
Personnel selected should have experience in the type of equipment they will operate. Skilled
engineers, electricians, mechanics, and pump operators are usually required at each pumping
22.214.171.124. Inspect all equipment in the pipeline system to ensure proper working condition. Failure
at one pumping station can cause a complete shutdown of the entire pipeline.
2.4.4. Off-Base Piping System Inspections:
126.96.36.199. Leak Detection. Pressure checks, volume checks, line patrols, and leak detection
apparatuses may be used to detect leaks.
188.8.131.52. Pressure Checks. Pressure-check off-base piping systems annually in the same way
prescribed for on-base piping systems (see paragraph 184.108.40.206). Hydrostatically test new piping
systems in accordance with API RP 1110, Pressure Testing of Liquid Petroleum Pipelines.
Hydrostatically test systems to the lesser of 1.5 times the operating pressure or 1.896 megapascals
(275 pounds per square inch gauge) maximum. During testing, disconnect system components
such as storage tanks or equipment that were not designed for the piping test pressure or protect
them against damage by over-pressure.
220.127.116.11. Volume Checks. Continuous records are kept on volume and temperature of liquid passed
through each pumping station. A difference in meter reading that cannot be accounted for by
temperature corrections between two stations usually indicates a leak, but could also indicate theft,
out-of-calibration meters, faulty temperature sensors, or human error.
18.104.22.168. Line Patrols. Inspections are made by line walkers, vehicles, and light aircraft. Air
patrols should be flown not less than once every three weeks at an elevation of less than 152
meters (500 feet) from the ground and at speeds from 104 to 128 kilometers per hour (65 to 80
miles per hour). The pipeline should be marked with posts or signs at 1.6-kilometer (1-mile)
intervals and at bends. The pilot acts as an observer who checks for unnatural changes in
vegetation color and oil slicks on lakes and streams which are evidence of leaking pipelines; area
construction work (e.g., roads, sewers) that could cross and possibly damage the pipeline; and the
overall condition of the right-of-way. Line walkers or vehicle patrols make detailed inspections
once a year of the entire pipeline, checking the general condition of the right-of-way, valves in
remote areas, supports on aboveground pipelines, and any condition that may indicate a leak.
22.214.171.124. Leak Detection Apparatus. Various types of leak detection apparatus are used by civilian
contractors. Vapor or electronic devices are some of the more common types.