21 JANUARY 2003
188.8.131.52. Bottom loading is the only acceptable means of loading tank trucks and tank cars. It
increases safety by reducing turbulence and splashing which contribute to static electricity
generation. Existing top-loading stands must be converted to bottom-loading. If unusual
circumstances require top-loading, contact the MAJCOM fuels engineer for a waiver.
184.108.40.206. Design flow through loading arms and or hoses is 1135 to 2271 liters per minute (300 to
600 gallons per minute). See MIL-HDBK-1022A for further design guidance.
220.127.116.11. Tank Trucks. The preferred loading arm for jet fuel is a metal, counterbalanced, swivel-
type of aluminum or stainless steel, although an approved hose meeting the requirements of API
Bulletin 1529, Aviation Fueling Hoses, is acceptable. Hoses, if provided, must be stored away
from direct sunlight. Other components include a diaphragm control valve with deadman to
control starting and stopping of fuel transfer, grounding equipment, dry break couplers (API RP
1004, Bottom Loading and Vapor Recovery for MC-306 Tank Motor Vehicles), vapor
collection/recovery systems when required, strainer, and meter. Meters should also be designed to
preset the fill volume and automatically shut off flow when the preset amount is reached.
18.104.22.168. Tank Cars. Counterbalanced articulated (swivel-type) tank car loading assemblies are
preferred. Typical components include those for tank trucks (paragraph 22.214.171.124.). An electronic
fuel level sensing system is frequently provided.
3.12. Ground Product Fueling Systems. These systems are usually designed to dispense fuel from
either an aboveground or an underground storage tank through a service station type dispenser. Fuel is
pumped using a dispenser-mounted suction pump, or a submersible pump mounted in the fuel tank.
Separate systems are used for each grade of fuel dispensed. The primary fuels dispensed are MOGAS
(motor gasoline), diesel, and JP-8. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limits the dispensing
rate for MOGAS to 37 liters per minute (10 gallons per minute). Diesel and JP-8 are dispensed at 37 to
56 liters per minute (10 to 15 gallons per minute) per outlet for passenger cars, and up to 94 liters per
minute (25 gallons per minute) per outlet for trucks and buses. Fueling stations are automated using the
Air Force Automated Fuels Service Station (AFSS) Fuels Management System made by Syn-Tech
Systems, Inc. LFM personnel typically do not perform maintenance on the AFSS system unless internal
dispenser components are replaced. Refer to the AFSS manufacturer's manual for detailed instructions.
3.12.1. System Requirements and Components:
126.96.36.199. Environment. In recent years, environmental regulations have played a key role in the
design, construction, operation, and maintenance of fueling stations.
188.8.131.52.1. Underground tanks must include leak detection, corrosion protection (for steel-
cathodic protection), and spill and overfill protection. Many new tanks are double-walled or
184.108.40.206.2. Pressurized gasoline-dispensing systems must automatically shut down or sound an
alarm if leaking. Most dispensing systems have an automatic flow restrictor ("Red Jacket").
220.127.116.11.3. Vapor recovery systems may be required by governing environmental regulations.
3.12.2. Leaks. More than half of suspected tank leaks have actually been leaky piping; check both
before needlessly removing a tank. The combination of a protective coating and well-maintained
cathodic protection are key. When replacing tanks, use double-wall steel STIp3 tanks, double-wall
fiberglass, or the equivalent. Aboveground self-diking tanks are good alternatives. Tank