21 JANUARY 2003
SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT
8.1. General Safety. Safe O&M of fuel facilities is compulsory to preserve life and property.
Breaches of safety standards may result in disciplinary action. Comply with the following measures:
8.1.1. Static and Electrical Grounding. Bonding and grounding components of petroleum fuel
facilities are of primary importance in preventing fire and explosion. All components in the fuel
system must be bonded and grounded to drain off static charges and stray electrical currents that can
discharge in the form of an electric arc. Bonding across flanges is not required as long as the bolts
and gasket between flanges are not electrically insulated. Static charges and prescribed grounding
procedures are detailed in Chapter 9.
8.1.2. Tools and Equipment. Common repairs and maintenance may be made with standard tools;
however, the area should be free of volatile liquids and vapors. Emergency repairs in the presence of
volatile liquids and vapors should be made cautiously to prevent sharp blows that could cause sparks.
8.1.3. Hose. Operators should clean and inspect off-loading and loading hoses after each use.
Properly store them in racks protected from the sun's rays. Inspect and test hoses according to
8.1.4. Signs. Inspect each fuel facility for permanent signs and markings, following guidance in
paragraph 10.16. Ensure signs are conspicuously mounted, clearly legible, and show the desired
objective. Verify enough movable or temporary signs are maintained in good condition to serve all
possible uses; for example: "DANGER," "CLOSED TO TRAFFIC," "KEEP FLAMES AWAY,"
"MEN WORKING," "DO NOT OPEN THIS VALVE UNDER ANY CONDITION," "NO
SMOKING," "TURN ON FAN BEFORE ENTERING PIT," "PUMP HOUSE," "DANGER NO
OPEN FLAME OR IGNITION SOURCE BEYOND THIS POINT." Use bilingual signs when
appropriate. Signs must meet AFOSH standards and T.O. 37-1-1 requirements.
8.1.5. Markings. Tanks must have the NATO fuel designation stenciled on each tank, along with the
US designation (e.g., JP-8 F-34; JP-5 F44). Provide identification banding or coding on tanks and
piping according to MIL-STD-161, Identification Methods for Bulk Petroleum, and maintain and
inspect according to paragraph 10.16.
8.1.6. Vapor- and Explosion-Proof Equipment. The NEC requires special electrical components in
areas where explosive vapors may be present or where volatile fuels are handled. NFPA 407,
Standard for Aircraft Fuel Servicing, Paragraph 2-4.9, requires electrical equipment and wiring to be
designed for Class I (flammable) liquids for all applications. Each repair project for a fuel facility
must be inspected to verify these requirements have been met.
8.1.7. Housekeeping. Safe, efficient operation requires cleanliness, neatness, and order. Each
individual must correct hazardous situations, if possible, or report them.
8.1.8. Expansion. Fuels expand about 0.12% for each degree Celsius (0.07% for each degree
Fahrenheit) temperature increase (about five times greater than water). In a closed, tight pipeline
system completely full of fuel with no provision for pressure relief, the internal pressure will increase
about 75 psi for each degree Fahrenheit temperature increase; therefore, it is absolutely essential that
all closed systems have a pressure relief bypass system (pressure relief valve and or check valve).
Relieved fuel must be directed to a vented tank.