21 JANUARY 2003
Hydrostatic head. Pressure caused by a column of fluid.
Hydrostatic test. A test for leaks in a piping system using liquid under pressure as the test medium.
Jet fuel. Fuel used in jet aircraft engines.
JP-4. A grade of jet fuel: vapor pressure = 2 to 3 psi; flash point = -29 C (-20 F); viscosity at
16 C (60 F) = 1.81 centistokes; freeze point = -58 C (-72 F); specific gravity = 0.79.
JP-5 (NATO F-44). A high-quality kerosene fuel with a flash point of 60 C (140 F) or higher, a
freeze point of -51.7 C (-61 F), a relative density of 48 to 36 API, and a specific gravity of 0.788 to
0.845. This fuel is primarily used by the Navy for use on carriers because of its high flash point.
JP-8 (NATO F-34). A high-quality kerosene fuel with a flash point of 3.2 C (37.8 F) or higher, a
freeze point of -47.2 C (-52.9 F), a relative density of 51 to 37 API, and a specific gravity of 0.775
JP-8+100 (NATO F-34+100). JP-8 fuel with an additive to increase fuel thermal stability by 38 C
(100 F). It has properties that reduce carbon buildup in engines and cleans certain engines with limited
buildup. It disarms conventional filter/separator (F/S) coalescers and replacements are not expected in
the field until 2001.
Kerosene. A class of refined oil that boils between 188 and 268 C (370 and 515 F). It is the primary
ingredient of JP-5 and JP-8.
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL). Sometimes referred to as the lower flammable limit (LFL). The
minimum concentration of a flammable vapor in air that will ignite if an ignition source is applied.
Liquid fuels. Any liquid used as fuel that can be poured or pumped.
Liquid. A fluid that pours easily and will take the shape of the container it fills. Liquid is almost
Loading. A fuel issue connection, where fuel is loaded on refueling units.
. Materials, especially oils, grease,
and solids such
as graphite, used
to decrease friction.
Micron. A unit of length equal to one millionth (1/1,000,000) of a meter.
. The computer
or processor used
as logic control for fuel
Nipple. A short length of pipe.
Nonsparking tools. Made of a metal alloy that which, when struck against other objects, do not
usually cause sparks of sufficient temperature to ignite flammable vapors.
Nozzle. A spout or connection through which fuel is discharged.
Offloading. The process of unloading fuel by tank truck or tank car.
Oil/water separator. A device used to separate mixtures of oil and water.
Open circuit. Incomplete electrical circuit or path. When a switch or circuit breaker is placed in the
off position or a fuse is removed, it is said to be "open."
Operating storage tank. Storage tank from which fuel may be issued directly to an aircraft or refueler.
Also referred to as a "ready-issue tank."