Air Quality Control
Pollutant Production. As a fossil fuel is burned, air pollutants such as
sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter are produced. The
amount of each formed is dependent upon many factors, the most important of which are
fuel type and fuel burning equipment. Data on emissions of pollutants produced while
burning a fossil fuel in a boiler are given in TM-5-815-1/AFR 19-6, Air Pollution
Emission Limits. The amount of the pollutants produced in the boiler that are
allowed to pass out of the stack as emissions is governed by Federal, state, and local
regulations. A discussion of emission limits as they relate to fossil fueled steam
power plants is contained in Section 18, Environmental Regulations and Permitting.
Equipment Selection. Examples of particulate matter removal equipment include
mechanical cyclones, wet scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators, and fabric filters
(baghouses). Sulfur dioxide is normally removed with wet or dry scrubbers. The basic
operation, application, design considerations, and selection of air pollution control
equipment are contained in TM-5-815-1/AFR 19-6.
pollutant production in the boiler is minimized. Various techniques such as fuel
changing, load reduction, and combustion modifications can be employed. However,
recently there has been much development work performed with techniques for reducing NOx
emissions with the use of Urea, Ammonia or Selective Catalytic Reduction. These systems
have been installed on many recent boilers and combustion turbines. Details of NOx
reduction techniques are given in TM-5-815-1/AFM 19-6.
Monitoring and Reporting. Point source emission rate tests are a necessary
part of the environmental impact assessment required for all new Government-funded
facilities. In the upgrading of existing installations, compliance is determined
through point source emission rate tests. Revisions to the regulations regarding air
pollution test requirements for federal installations appear in the Federal Register.
The point source emission rate test methods and requirements approved by the
EPA are published in the Code of Federal Regulations. The techniques included are for
testing for particulate, SO2, NOx, and visible emissions and are listed in Table 29.