12 December 2001
New Facilities in Existing Harbors. Where new facilities are to be
developed in an existing port, these facilities are subject to the same criteria as the
development of a new port. Although some information is contained in CEM, additional
information is required. Further topics worthy of consideration are basin depth, Navy
ship size and draft, ordnance issues, and new types of Electronic Counter Measures
(ECM), such as deperming and degaussing.
Submarine Facility Special Requirements. The following submarine-
specific requirements are provided:
Special Considerations. Harbors designed to accommodate naval
submarines of the various classes require special attention during the planning stage.
Since surfaced submarines are relatively unwieldy deep-draft vessels with low
freeboards, channels and other water areas to be used by submarines must be wide
and deep enough for safe maneuvering.
Entrances and Channels. Surfaced submarines are susceptible to wave
action, surge and currents. Submarines require still water not only during docking and
mooring operations, but also especially while negotiating the entrance and channels.
Where moorings are located in estuaries and rivers subject to strong currents, or where
entrances are subject to moderate to strong wave action, protection in the form of
jetties or breakwaters should be provided.
Moorings. Because of its "barrel" cross-section, a submarine's beam
underwater exceeds the width of its above-water superstructure. Thus, to safely moor
submarines, an underwater fendering system is mandatory. Such "deep-draft
separators" function as camels, with the difference being that the apparatus extends
deep enough to buffer the widest point of the vessel. The depth required depends
upon the specific submarine. For example, if the draft of the submarine is 10.1 m (33
ft,) the separator must extend a minimum of 5.5 m (18 ft) below the surface.
Separators are normally between 9.1 and 15.2 m (30 and 50 ft) in length. Facilities for
docking submarines and the design of deep draft separators are described in MIL-
HDBK-1025/1. However, it should be remembered when designing harbors to
accommodate submarines that ample storage area is needed for deep-draft separators
when not in use. Further, consideration should be given to water-area docking or
mooring requirements for small craft servicing deep-draft separators and other support
Piers and Wharves. Special requirements for the design of piers and
wharves to accommodate submarines are contained in MIL-HDBK-1025/1. It is noted
that in the absence of tug assist, the water approaches to submarine docking facilities
should be designed to accommodate the largest vessel anticipated. Table 5-5 lists
typical submarine dimensions for preliminary design purposes.