12 December 2001
Square pier systems. Width should be capable of berthing the
longest expected ship. The net area of the pier should be three
times that required for a single berth terminal.
Finger pier system. Pier width varies. Width requirements may
be estimated from data in MIL-HDB-1025/1.
Fueling vessels. Berths should be at least 152.4 m (500 ft) from
Explosives. Berths should be separated in accordance with the
quantity-distance relationships established in DOD 5154.45 and
NAVSEA OP 5.
Turning Basins. Where space is available, providing turning basins will
minimize tug usage. However, where space is restricted, tugs may be used to turn
vessels, thereby eliminating the need for turning basins.
Location. The following location requirements must be met:
locate one turning basin at the head of navigation
locate a second turning basin just inside the breakwater
in areas where especially heavy traffic is anticipated, provide intermediate
basins to reduce congestion and save time
where feasible, use an area of the harbor, which in its natural state has
the required size and depth.
it is frequently advantageous for a turning basin to be located at the
entrance to drydocks or at the interior or landward end of long piers or
wharves that provide multiple-length berthing.
Size and Form. As a rule of thumb, a vessel can be turned comfortably
in a radius of twice the vessel length, or, where ease of maneuver is not an issue, in a
radius equal to the vessel length. For shorter turning radii, tug assistance for the vessel
is necessary. Also in this case, where wind and current effects are not critical, naval
vessels can be turned in a circle with a diameter of 1.5 times the vessel length. Table
5-15 provides dimensions of typical turning basins in existence.
Siting Factors. Table 5-16 lists factors affecting location, size, and depth
of anchorage basins.