12 December 2001
Table 5-10 Factors Affecting Location of Berthing Basins
Requirement and Comment
Locate berthing basins in harbor areas that are best protected
from wind and wave disturbances and/or in areas remote from
the disturbances incident upon the harbor entrance.
Orient berths for ease of navigation to and from entrance and
Provide sufficient area offshore of berths for turning ships,
preferably without use of tugs.
Adequate quayage shall be provided for expected traffic.
Provide area for future expansion.
Fouling and Borers
Where possible, locate berthing basin in area of harbor with
minimum fouling conditions and minimum incidence of marine
borers. Elliott, Tressler, and Meyers (1952) indicate some
advantages for locations in the ebb side of an estuary harbor.
The ebb side of an estuary in the Northern Hemisphere is the
right side looking seaward.
Where feasible, locate in area of favorable subsoil conditions, in
order to minimize cost of berthing structures.
Locate supporting shore facilities in proximity to their respective
berths. Adequate space and access for upland road and
railroad facilities are essential. In general, it is desirable to
have a wide marginal street at the inshore ends of the piers or
wharves and a wide street on the pier axis. Annual capacity
per terminal is based on commercial throughput values
obtained from Hockney (1979).
Single Berth Terminal
by Cargo Class
(tons per year)
Neo-bulk general cargo
Containerized general cargo
Dry bulk silo storage
Dry bulk open storage low
Dry bulk open storage high
Liquid bulk other than petroleum
Petroleum bulk up to 50,000 dwt
Petroleum bulk 30,000 to 200,000