12 December 2001
Pipelines and Outfalls and Submarine Cables. Pipelines, outfalls and
submarine cable systems that cross a shoreline, harbor, river or other bodies of water
are exposed to many hazards. Fishing activity, anchors, wave action, currents, ice
scour, and vandalism are just a few of the causes of damage to these systems. A
variety of methods are used for protection and stabilization including, armor, split pipe,
rock riprap, concrete encasement, mechanical anchoring, trenching and horizontal
direction drilling. The recommended source for information on this subject is CEM
Miscellaneous Structure Examples. Examples of low-cost shore
protection, sand-filled beach structures, low-energy shore protection, and beach
draining are provided in CEM Section VI-7-8.
DESIGNING FOR REPAIR, REHABILITATION, AND MODIFICATION.
existing structures, sloping-front structures, vertical-front structures and monitoring of