19 June 2001
Figure 2-8 Typical Location of Jetties
2-2.5.4 Breakwaters. Breakwaters are large rubble-mound structures located
outside of a harbor, anchorage, or coastline to protect the inner waters and
shoreline from the effects of heavy seas. These barriers help to ensure safe
mooring, operating, loading, or unloading of ships within the harbor. Breakwaters
may be connected to the shore or detached from the shore. There are three
general types of breakwaters, depending on the type of exposed face. The
exposed face may be vertical, partly vertical and partly inclined, or inclined.
Figure 2-9 shows a section of a breakwater.
COMPONENTS OF WATERFRONT STRUCTURES. Numerous
components of basic facilities are present at the waterfront to aid in port
operations. These components are integral parts of piers and wharves and
include fender systems, piling, dolphins, deck and mooring hardware, and utility
distribution systems, or they may be offshore systems vital to ship operations,
such as fleet moorings. Utility distribution systems and offshore systems are not
specifically covered in this manual.