19 June 2001
Figure 3-4. Timber Pile Jacket for Ice Protection
CONCRETE. Reinforced concrete is the predominant construction
material for waterfront facilities due to its durability, strength, and economy as a
bulk construction material. Steel and wood do not have the bulk properties and
adaptability of concrete. In addition, basic components to make reinforced
concrete are readily available at most locations. Applications of reinforced
concrete at the waterfront include:
Seawalls, bulkheads (quaywalls), and revetments use reinforced
concrete as the dominant material of construction. It is used as the
facing material to absorb wave impact, retain fill, and reduce the
erosive effects of wave action. Concrete is used in piles, curved-
faces, sheet piling, and other forms.
Piers and wharves are usually built with reinforced concrete.
Concrete is also used to protect wood or steel from corrosion,
weathering, fungal decay, or marine organism attack. Prestressed
concrete fender piles are effective and long lasting.
Groins are built from concrete sheet piles and panels. The piles or
panels are usually prestressed units and are tied in place with a
Breakwaters use various shapes of precast concrete. These
interlocking building blocks can be assembled in various shapes.
Submerged structures use reinforced concrete that are cast in
place or precast and used to support pilings and structures.