19 June 2001
REPAIR OF BULKHEADS AND QUAYWALLS
GENERAL. Bulkheads and quaywalls are used as berthing facilities
and thus are included in this handbook. Similar structures such as seawalls and
breakwaters, designed primarily for coastal protection functions, are covered
extensively in USACE manuals. Repair of coastal structures is covered in
USACE, "Coastal Engineering Technical Notes" and "Repair, Evaluation,
Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Technical Notes." These documents can be
designs of these structures overlap, there is considerable overlap in repair
Bulkheads and quaywalls are constructed primarily of sheet piling with
soil fill overlaid with concrete or asphalt. Chapters 6 through 9 address the repair
of sheetpiling. This section describes the repair of soil fill and overlay.
The common causes of damage to earth-filled structures are erosion
by water and settlement due to undermining, washouts, etc. In addition, the sheet
piling may deteriorate. Sheet piling repair procedures depend on the type of
material used and are included in Chapter 8.
PLANNING THE REPAIRS. Before repairing earth-filled structures,
consider the following:
Mission requirement for the structure.
Operational constraints placed on the facility because of the
Changes to environmental conditions, such as currents, caused by
other coastal or harbor changes.
Alternatives for repairing the structure.
In many cases, usage requirements for the facility may have changed.
Stone masonry bulkheads and earth-filled vertical bulkhead structures, as an
example, may no longer be required for other than retaining the surrounding
shoreline. The solutions may involve using riprap to shore up the structure or
reduce seepage and loss of backfill, rather than performing expensive repairs to