28 July 2005
Disaster Control and Emergency Plans.
In an emergency, tugs may not be available. Therefore, the slip, berth, basin,
and channels should allow the ship to get underway without assistance. See
There will be cases where a ship will not be able to leave prior to heavy weather
(such as during a PMA or PIA for CVN). General-purpose berths are normally
designed for 64-knot (75-mph [32.9 m/s]) winds. Winds in excess of 64 knots (75
mph [32.9 m/s]), such as may be seen at repair berths, require special
considerations. See the heavy weather mooring criteria contained in UFC 4-159-
Design facility systems for continuous operation in the event of a power outage,
in other words, pier/wharf remains operational with exception of having shore
power and lighting.
Information on channel approaches (outer channels), entrances (inner channels),
and turning basins to include recommended widths and depths is contained in
At locations where the required depth of water is available close to shore and the
harbor bottom slopes steeply out to deeper water, it may not be economical to
build deep-water foundations for a pier; consider a wharf structure. At locations
where water depths are shallow and extensive dredging would be required to
provide the required depth of water close to shore, consider locating the facility
offshore, in deeper water, by utilizing a T-, L-, or U-type wharf.
These are small independent platforms or groups of piles used by themselves or
in conjunction with a pier or wharf for specialized purposes. A mooring dolphin is
sometimes used at the offshore end of a pier or both ends of a wharf to tie up the
bow or stern line of a ship at a more favorable angle. Mooring dolphins are
usually accessed by a catwalk, as illustrated in Figure 2-1, and are provided with
a bollard or capstan. Breasting dolphins are sometimes used for roll-on/roll-off
facilities and at fueling terminals where a full-length pier or wharf is not required.
They may also be used as part of the fender system. A turning dolphin is an
isolated structure used solely for guiding the ships into a berth or away from
known obstructions. Occasionally, a mooring dolphin may also be designed to
function as a turning dolphin. Approach dolphins are used where the end of a
pier or ends of a slip require protection from incoming ships.