28 July 2005
Deck elevations should be set high enough above MHHW levels to allow for
utilities/trenches that are located below the pier deck.
Deck Elevation for CVN Berths.
Deck elevation must not conflict with CVN elevators. When lowered, the lowest
projection of the elevator is 9.0 ft (2.74 m) above the design water line for a CVN.
Use properly designed camels and pier fendering to provide sufficient standoff to
If possible, set deck elevation as close as possible to grade of the adjacent land
for smooth access of mobile cranes, service vehicles, personnel vehicles, and
railroad. Ramps may be used to access the deck set higher or lower than
adjacent land. A maximum gradient of 15 percent may be used for such ramps
when railroad access is not provided. Consideration should be made to reduce
grade to 6 to 8 percent, comparable to state DOT requirements, in cold regions
where snow or ice can be a problem. Ramps for pedestrian access should have
a gradient less than 12 horizontal to 1 vertical, with 5 ft (1.5 m) minimum landings
for every 30 in (762 mm) of rise to conform to American with Disabilities Act
(ADA) of 1990. Vertical curves should be large enough so that long wheelbase
or long overhang vehicles do not or drag. Where track mounted cranes are
specified, all the deck areas serviced by the crane should be kept at the same
For double deck piers or wharves and in situations where a sloping deck is
contemplated (for gravity flow of sewer lines), all the above considerations should
For design criteria of utilities on piers and wharves, refer to UFC 4-150-02.
Usually, utility connection points (hoods, vaults, or mounds) are located and
spaced along the pier or wharf edge to be as close as possible to the ships' utility
terminals in the assumed berthing position. The connection points should be
planned and located to accommodate reasonable future changes in berthing plan
or in the type of ships served. Typical hotel services are: potable water, non-
potable/saltwater, CHT, oily waste/waste oil, compressed air, steam,
telecommunications, and shore power. All utility lines should be kept where they