28 July 2005
can be conveniently accessed from above deck. Typical utility configurations on
piers and wharves are described below:
These are basically protected trenches running along the waterside edge of a
pier or wharf accessed by removable covers from the top. Refer to Figure 2-5.
In a pier, the lines can go along one edge all the way to the end and be "looped"
to the other edge back to land. In a wharf, the lines can be supplied and returned
through smaller lateral "trenches." Where the number and size of lines is large
enough, a utility tunnel or gallery can be utilized with access from the top or side.
Where a fuel line is provided, it should be kept in a separate trench for
containment of leaks.
Double Deck Pier.
As shown in Figure 2-6, utility lines are isolated on the lower deck and can be
easily accessed. The upper deck is thus clear of all utility lines and terminations
and is free for operations.
This concept consists of a sloping deck filled with 1.5 ft (0.46 m) to 3 ft (0.91 m)
of crushed rock ballast, which provides a convenient medium to bury the utility
lines and crane or rail trackage. The ballast is topped with concrete or asphalt
paving, which will provide a firm-working surface for operations. The paving and
ballast can be removed to access the utility lines. Concrete pavers have been
used successfully for paving ballasted decks and provide improved access to
utilities buried in the wharf ballast. Future changes in utilities and trackage can
similarly be accommodated. Also, the ballast helps to distribute concentrated
load to the deck slab, thus allowing heavier crane outrigger loads.
Pier lighting is needed for security, safety, and operations. Provide safety and
operations pier lighting in accordance with UFC 3-530-01 (currently a draft dated
Jan 2004) and as follows:
Provide 5 foot-candles, average in active work areas. Provide 0.5 fc (5.4 lx) in all
other areas including: pedestrian foot traffic areas, entrances, corners, vertical
faces, and berth slip areas (600 ft [182.9 m] from face of pier) of piers. Utilize
minimum number of high mast lighting poles and fixtures that will provide
uniformity. Coordinate number, height, and location of poles with their
associated concrete pedestals so as not to obstruct pier operations. Light
fixtures should be metal halide (MH) or high-pressure sodium (HPS). Utilize
fixture shielding and cutoff features to provide the required lighting for the pier or