28 July 2005
wharf deck and waterside edges without blinding the ship's pilots during berthing
operations. In sea turtle nesting areas use of low-pressure sodium (LPS) fixtures
Lower Deck Lighting.
On lower deck of double deck pier, provide fluorescent fixtures in utility and work
areas with fc(footcandle) levels based on the required tasks. Incorporate
multilevel lighting in roadway and open areas using HPS, MH or fluorescent
fixtures. Provide 0.5 to 1 fc (5.4 to 10.8 lx) level for security lighting operating via
photocell control and supplemental sectionalized and switched task lighting to
achieve 5 fc average. Consider incorporation of occupancy sensors in enclosed
spaces for lighting control. See also paragraph 7.2.1 of this document.
Dedicated fixtures located beneath the pier are not normally required.
Illumination will be limited to the extent possible from the pier deck light poles.
For waterfront security and anti-terrorism/force protection criteria, refer to UFC 4-
025-01, scheduled to be completed in June 2005.
Approaches are required to provide access from shore to piers and wharves
located offshore. Usually, the approach is oriented at right angles to the
shoreline. Except in special situations, approaches should consist of open-type
trestle structures that minimize impediments to water flow and disturbances to
the characteristics and ecology of the shoreline. The number, width, and
orientation of approaches should consider the volume of traffic flow, circulation of
traffic, existing roads on shore side, fire lane requirements, and interruption of
service due to accidental collision damage to the approach. As approaches are
also used to route utilities to the pier or wharf, the width of approaches will be
further influenced by the space requirements of the utility lines being carried.
Vehicle and pedestrian approach can usually be combined on the same
structure. However, where a large number of personnel are anticipated to
access the facility, a separate pedestrian approach should be considered.
Criteria is provided below: