28 July 2005
berthing pier, a design drawing will typically present different design live loads
including uniform, vehicular (i.e. HS 20-44), forklift, and maximum outrigger float
load. The outrigger load from the mobile crane invariably controls with the other
loads more or less provided for informational purposes.
See Table 3-2 for recommended uniform loadings for piers and wharves. Impact is
not applied when designing for uniform loads.
Table 3-2 Vertical Live Loads for Pier and Wharf Decks
Berthing (all others)
Supply (general cargo)
40/50 (long tons)
20-lift truck 33-
*psf can be converted to pascals (Pa) by multiplying by 47.88026.
Calculate truck wheel loads in accordance with the American Association of State
Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Standard Specifications for
Highway Bridges except as modified below. In the design of slabs, beams, and pile
caps, apply an impact factor of 15 percent. Structural elements below the pile caps
need not be designed for impact. When truck loading is transferred through 1.5 ft
(0.45 m) or more of crushed rock ballast and paving, and for filled construction, the
impact forces need not be considered for design. Also, check with local activity for
use of an overload vehicle such as weapons cradles, missile hauling vehicles, etc.
which may have significantly higher wheel loads.
Rail-Mounted Crane Loading
For design of new piers and wharves, the specific wheel load information about the
crane(s) to be used should be obtained. If the crane resources are not known at the
time of design, consult the Navy Crane Center for design loading and crane
procurement. When choosing design wheel loads, consideration should be given to
flexibility allowing for different makes of cranes and ultimate crane replacement as
well as future use of the pier or wharf. Piers and wharves have greater longevity