28 July 2005
For piers and wharves exposed to waves which may produce significant lateral or
hydrostatic forces, determine wave loading in accordance with the procedures
defined in UFC 4-150-06.
Application of Loadings.
Wheel loads and outrigger float loads from designated pneumatic-tired equipment,
such as trucks, truck cranes, forklifts, and straddle carriers may be oriented in any
direction and the orientation causing the maximum forces on the structural members
should be considered for design. Significant loads from fuel containers at Repair or
Fitting Out Piers exceeding 300 kips (1334.5 kN) may be encountered. Design
trench covers, utility trench covers, and access hatch covers to handle the
concentrated loads, where they are accessible to mobile equipment. However,
designated areas on the pier deck may be exempted from wheel loads or outrigger
float loads, or designed for lesser loads, when curbs, railings, and other physical
barriers are provided to isolate those areas from vehicle access. Concentrated
wheel loads from these vehicles are applied through small "footprints" to the deck
structure. The distribution of these loads and computation of maximum moments
and shears may be in accordance with the AASHTO Standard Specification for
Highway Bridges. However, this method is conservative and more reasonable
results may be obtained using R-935; Influence Surfaces for Elastic Plates, for
different edge conditions; or finite element analysis.