28 July 2005
This is the pressure exerted on the ship's hull by the fender unit and is derived by
dividing the reaction force by the fender area in contact with the ship. Hull
pressure must be limited to levels that will not cause permanent damage to the
This is the distance, perpendicular to the line of the berth that the face of the
fender system moves in absorbing the ship's kinetic energy. The magnitude of
the deflection allowable will be controlled by other protrusions from the berthing
face and the ship.
The nature of the reaction deflection relationship determines the relative stiffness
of the fender system.
This includes the changes in environmental conditions (i.e., wind, current, waves,
and tide) during loading and unloading at the berth. The fender system should
not "roll up," tear, abrade, or be susceptible to other forms of damage when
subject to long-term contact.
Coefficient of Friction between the Face of the Fender System
and the Ship's Hull.
This determines the resultant shear force when the ship is berthing with
longitudinal and/or rolling motion and may have a significant detrimental effect on
the energy-absorption performance of the fender system. The magnitude of the
shear force also may have a significant effect on the cost of the berthing
Degree of Exposures.
Where the berth is exposed to severe wind, current, and/or wave action, the
fender selection may be governed by the design mooring conditions rather than
Evaluate capital costs for both the fender system and the structure; also evaluate
costs for operation, maintenance, and repair.