28 July 2005
The capability of the crews responsible for berthing the ship will have an effect on
the energy-absorption requirement of the fender system. The berthing velocity
and angle of approach are affected by the local berthing practice.
Where maintenance is expected to be infrequent, a simple, possibly less
efficient, fender system may be preferable to a system requiring a higher degree
Consider fender types already used locally because their performance under
actual conditions is known. Also, there may be an advantage in having
interchangeability of spares, particularly if the number of new fenders required is
A high frequency of berthings normally justifies greater capital expenditures for
the fender system.
Range of Ship Sizes Expected to Use the Berth.
While the energy-absorption capacity of the fender system may be selected for
the largest ship expected to use the berth, the fender system must be suitable for
the full range of ships that the berth will accommodate. The effect of hull
pressure and fender stiffness on the smaller vessels may have a significant
influence on the selection and arrangement of the fenders.
Shape of Ship's Hull in Contact with the Fender System.
Where vessels with unusual hull configurations or protrusions are expected to
use the berth or where the berth must accommodate barges, pay special
attention to the selection and arrangement of the fender system.
Range of Water Level to be Accommodated.
The fender system must be suitable during the full range of water levels that may
occur at the berth. The design must consider both the largest and smallest
vessels, in both the loaded and light conditions, at high and low water levels.
Where extreme water level variations occur, consider using floating fender
The size, type, and number of camels used in berthing operations will seriously
influence selection of the fender system.