28 July 2005
CHAPTER 6 CAMELS & SEPARATORS
FUNCTION AND APPLICATION.
Camels are devices used between the ship and the pier or wharf structure.
Camels are a NAVFAC responsibility. Separators are devices used between
adjacent multiple berthed (nested) ships to provide a "standoff" or separation.
Separators are a NAVSEA responsibility. As mentioned in the previous section,
design of fender piles or other backing system is required to provide the
structural interface between the camel and the pier/wharf structure. Camels and
separators are used at Navy piers and wharves for the following reasons:
During active berthing, the ship's crew typically performs cleaning, painting, light
hull repairs, and other routine maintenance activities on the ship. These
activities are best performed when the ship is kept off the structure at discrete
Overhangs and projections.
Aircraft carriers that have large overhangs at the flight deck level, and several
other ship types having bulges and projections at the side, require camels to
prevent damage to the ship at these projections. Other protrusions include air
masker bands, soft sonar domes, and stabilizer fins.
Special Hull Treatments.
Some ships are equipped with special hull treatments that can get damaged
through constant rubbing against the structure. Camels and separators with rub
strips can minimize the contact area and control the damage.
Navy submarines are typically berthed using camels. The submarines may be
moored to the camels or moored directly to the berthing structure. Submarines
require the camels to prevent damage to diving planes, screws, fairings, and the
special hull treatments.
Multiple Berthing (Nesting).
Separators are required between ships that have to be berthed abreast for ship-
to-ship transfer operations or for lack of berthing space at a naval station.