28 July 2005
vessel. The length should not be less than the distance between three frames of
the ship, three fenders or fender piles on the pier, or 30 ft (9.1 m,) whichever is
greatest. Minimum camel width is determined by the ship's roll characteristics
and freeboard, the presence of any overhanging projections on a ship and
vertical obstructions on the dock such as gantry cranes or light poles.
Provide adequate depth for submarine camels and separators to maintain
contact with ship and pier/wharf in the full tidal range.
There is usually some eccentricity between the horizontal load applied on the
ship-side and the horizontal reaction provided on the dock-side. This is due to
tilting of the camels (from imperfect flotation, buoyancy tank taking on water, etc.)
and tendency of the camel to ride up and down with the vessel due to tidal
fluctuations. The camel should have sufficient width, depth, and weight to
provide roll stability for counteracting the effect of the load eccentricity and
should have means of adjusting for variations in tilt and trim.
For fine-lined ships, camels should generally be placed within quarter points of
the ship to give strength and to bear on a reasonably straight portion of the hull.
For straight-sided ships, camels may be located beyond the quarter points.
Provide at least two camels for each class of ships. Camels should not be
placed so as to bear directly against structural piles.
Consider outfitting steel separators with a suitable protective coating or a
cathodic protection system, depending on relative costs.
Buoyancy tanks should be compartmented or foam filled. Provide drainage plugs
used for pressure testing the buoyancy tanks. Where pontoon camels are
assembled in a single line, they should be ballasted for stability through plugged
openings provided for this purpose. Consider the buoyancy of framing members
and the weight of paint, if any, in the buoyancy and stability computations.
Where buoyancy tanks are not foam filled to allow filling with ballast water or
weights to adjust trim and freeboard of the camel, provide easily accessible
fill/pumpout and vent connections. These connections can be used to pump out
excess water that leaks into the tanks.