AGENTS AND APPARATUS
General. Substitute materials have been found to
replace AFFF foam, PKP, and smoke. These substitutes were
chosen to improve the trainee's environment, the treatability of
the air and water effluents, and the economics of training.
Equivalents other than brand names are acceptable as long as the
substitute material meets the given chemical formula
Any reference to the use of the above agents in this
document should be understood to mean the substitute mentioned
below unless stated otherwise.
Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF)
a) AFFF is used extensively in the Navy for fighting
fires aboard ship. Its main disadvantage in firefighting
training is its toxicity to treatment plant bacteria and
receiving stream oyster larva. The toxic characteristic did not
respond to various treatment processes as measured by
methylene-blue-active substance (MBAS). Therefore, the only two
methods of disposal for AFFF contaminated waste water was
hauling it away as a toxic waste or diluting it to under 200
ppm. The first option was prohibitively expensive and the
latter alternative restricted the amount of foam to where it
could only be used for demonstration purposes not for training.
b) Dilution is, however, the method of disposal of
AFFF used by the fleet during the routine testing of shipboard
firefighting equipment. When testing is done in harbor and
coastal areas, the effluent is collected and stored until it can
be transferred to shore. Once shoreside, it is metered into the
municipal sanitary sewer system under permit.
a) The substitute for AFFF is sodium dodecylbenzine
sulfonate manufactured by Pilot Chemical Company of Avenel, New
Jersey and marketed as Calsoft. It is also marketed by Whitco
under the name Ultrawet K, by Textile Chemical Company under the
name Calsoft, and by Stephan Chemical Company under the name