Artificial Smoke. Artificial smoke agent is butylated
triphenyl phosphate ester hydraulic fluid which contains varied
amounts of the toxic substance triphenyl phosphate (TPP).
Several states regulate the emission of this substance as a
hazardous air pollutant. Artificial smoke as generated is a hot
air or aerosol mixture which produces a negligible residue.
Visible emission from a training structure consists of
artificial smoke (a white colored hot air or aerosol mixture)
and water vapor both of which evaporate to a colorless gas with
no particulates. Where visible emission is not permissible,
treatment should consist of allowing the effluent to evaporate
prior to discharge.
Benzene. Although propane fuel eliminates most
emissions of criteria pollutants, benzene is still emitted in
trace amounts and concentrations. In some installations,
additional stacks have been required by local air pollution
authorities to lower ground level plume concentrations of
benzene. Emissions testing of 21C12 facilities at STF Norfolk
and 19F5 facilities at RTC San Diego were conducted in Fall of
1993. Test results will be published as an amendment to this
handbook as soon as results are available.
General. The water effluent from training structures
contains two major contaminants in varying degrees depending on
the training being given. Sodium bicarbonate and excessive
concentrations of biodegradable surfactant are the contaminants.
Wastewater is channeled to a collection tank for pretreatment.
Surface runoff from fire training facility pavement can go
directly to the storm drain since firefighting agents used
outside each structure are also collected and sent to
a) Wastewater effluent characteristics are as noted
below in Table 16. These wastewater characteristics are based
on actual bench tests performed by LANTNAVFACENGCOM.
Limitations for each of these characteristics may vary on a
local or state level. Typical wastewater surcharge limits are
provided in Table 17. It should be the responsibility of the
local EFD's to: