15 August 2002
One from coping to floor on each side of the dock at the head end.
One or more from yard level to pumproom floor in the pumpwell.
One on each side of the drydock, from coping to floor and/or to utility
service galleries at a spacing of about 91.44 m (300 ft.)
Ladders. Provide ladders only where the available space is insufficient
for stairways, or where traffic is too light to warrant stairway construction. Place ladders
in pumpwells as leads to access hatches and large manholes.
Steel Shapes. Fabricate ladders of steel shapes. Plug weld rungs into
rails. Install ladders so that the distance from the rungs to the finished wall surface will
not be less than 177.8 mm (7 in.) Secure ladders to the adjacent construction with
heavy clip angles, welded to the rails and secured to masonry, concrete, or stud framing
with not less than two 15.875 mm (5/8-in) diameter bolts. Intermediate clip angles must
be provided not over 1.52 m (5 ft) on centers. Provide brackets as required for securing
of ladders welded or bolted to structural steel and built into the masonry or concrete. In
no case should ends of ladders rest upon finished roof or floor. Ladders and supports
must be galvanized after fabrication unless a corrosion resistant material is used. Bar
steel rungs may be installed 305 mm (12 in) apart, vertically below manholes, and at
other locations where frequent access is not generally necessary.
Stainless Steel. Low carbon stainless steel (310SS-316SS) rungs and
ladders should be considered for alternating wet-dry, high corrosion areas.
Railings. Provide pipe railings around fixed installations (such as
machinery), around open shafts, along dock walls at altars or setbacks, and along the
top edge of retaining walls. Chain and removable stanchions or removable solid railing
sections may be installed where removability is required around permanent openings
and installations. Incorporate fall protection requirements where removable railings are
installed. Install fall protection tie off points that can be used when railings are removed.
On Coping. Provide a removable railing. Chain railing is often used, but
maintaining adequate chain tension is a common problem. Solid metal pipe or
fiberglass railing, provided in 2.43.7 m (8-12 ft) sections for ease of
removal/reinstallation, is preferred. Solid railing sections should fit securely into sockets
fastened to the coping and are open on the bottom to prevent debris accumulation. If
chain railing is used, it should consist of two lines of zinc coated, or other corrosion
resisting material, chains running through steel stanchions spaced at 2.44 m (8 ft)
intervals along the coping. The top chain should be taut to prevent people from losing
their balance if they lean against it. If space permits, place the stanchion inserts 304.8
mm (12 in) back from the edge of the coping.
On Stairways. Provide rigid pipe guard railing of two parallel pipes
approximately 50.8 mm (2 in) diameter and running between fixed pipe stanchions on all
stairways. These may be a removable type, if necessary.