Ties may be of wood, concrete, or
Specifications and Applications.
Wood Ties. All wood ties shall conform to Federal Specification
MM-T-371, Ties, Railroads, Wood (Cross and Switch) and have protective
treatment, conforming to Federal Specification TT-W-571, Wood Preservation:
See AREA Manual, Chapter 10.
Ties of Other Materials. Consider other materials such as steel in
place of wood or concrete ties when practicable.
Economic Service Life and Tests. See AREA Manual, Chapter 3, Part
3, Tie Tests and the Economics of Service Life.
To prolong the life of
Handling and Protection of Timber Ties.
protected ties, specify the following practices:
Use steel tie plates under the rails.
Use care in handling with sharp-pointed tools to avoid damage.
d) Fill empty spike or bolt holes by driving treated wooden plugs
into the holes. See AREA Manual, Chapter 3, Part 1.7, Timber Cross Ties.
For additional information, refer to AREA Manual, Chapter 3, Part 5, The
Handling of Ties From the Tree into the Track.
Use the following dimensions:
Cross Ties. For running track, cross ties of 7 by 8 inches or 7 by
9 inches by 8 feet 6 inches long should be used. For yards and sidings, 6 by
8 inches by 8 feet 0 inches long may be used. See Federal Specification
MM-T-371, Table I.
Timber Switch Ties. Should be the same cross section as adjacent
cross ties. Each tie shall be of the length specified in AREA Portfolio of
Trackwork Plans. See AREA Manual, Chapter 3, Part 2, Timber Switch Ties and
Federal Specification MM-T-371.
Bridge or Trestle Ties. Shall conform in spacing and length to the
bridge or trestle design. See AREA Manual, Chapter 7.
Use the following spacing: