Facility Planning and Design Guide
NAVFAC DM-1 Series
NAVFAC DM-3 Series
Design Criteria Guidance for Energy
NCEL CR 83.005
Handbook of Thermal Insulation
In hot humid climates, special attention should be given to
insulation systems that protect against radiant heat gain (especially through
the roof), since this is the major contributor to internal heat gains. Such
systems are typically composed of one to three reflective foil liners, with
airspaces between, located between or attached to the structural members.
Recent studies performed at the Florida Solar Energy Center have shown that
radiant barriers in both roof and wall configurations are effective at
preventing heat gain if properly used. Where heat loss is a concern, they
should be supplemented with standard resistive insulation such as glass fiber,
mineral wool, or rigid foams.
When roof or wall insulation is not used it is the responsibility
of the designer to justify the alternate proposed wall or roof system(s). In
these cases, the designer should clearly show that the internal temperatures
will not be adversely affected by minimizing or eliminating insulation in the
roofs and/or walls.
Ventilative Considerations. Partitions and interior walls usually
lower interior velocities and change airflow distributions by diverting the
air from its most direct path from inlet to outlet. The closer the interior
wall is to the inlet, the more abrupt the change in the airflow pattern and
more of the air's velocity is dissipated. To maintain high interior
velocities for natural ventilation, interior walls perpendicular to the flow
should be placed close to the outlet (see Figure 39).
Placement of walls or partitions can affect airflow beneficially.
Walls can be used to split airflow and improve circulation creating better
overall room air distribution in rooms with poor exterior orientation (see
Naturally ventilated buildings should be single-loaded for easier
cross ventilation. Corridors can be either on the upwind or downwind side,
and may serve a dual function as shading devices if placed on the south,
southeast, or southwest side of an elongated building facing one of these
orientations. Odor-producing spaces such as toilets and kitchens, and noise
producing spaces such as mechanical rooms, should be placed on the downwind
side of the living spaces.
Thermal Considerations. Locations of rooms with respect to their
thermal characteristics and requirements can reduce energy consumption.
Spaces which require little heating/cooling or light (closets, storage,