22 August 2006
fluorescent lamps rather than high-pressure sodium lamps where
peripheral detection is important such as pedestrian walkways, parking
areas, and other outdoor areas where pedestrians are present. Refer to
paragraph 2-5.2 for additional information on the effectiveness of white
Consider high-pressure sodium to maintain continuity with existing
conditions and adjacent projects.
Incandescent and Tungsten Halogen Lamps. Incandescent and tungsten
halogen lamps use the most energy for the amount of light output, and also require high
maintenance. The use of standard incandescent is not allowed for new installations.
Avoid tungsten halogen lamps unless deemed necessary for the specialized application,
such as accent lighting a key feature or artwork. In these applications, consider using a
low wattage PAR metal halide as an alternative.
Requirements for incandescent and tungsten halogen lamps:
Do not use standard incandescent lamps. Except for specialty
applications such as photograph development areas.
Considerations for incandescent and tungsten halogen lamps:
Limit the use of tungsten halogen lamps. When low-level accent lighting is
necessary for a special application, use tungsten halogen lamps with a
minimum efficacy of 20 lumens per watt.
Xenon lamps can be used as an alternative to standard incandescent
lamps especially in landscape lighting applications. These lamps have a
significantly longer life.
When tungsten halogen is absolutely necessary, the lighting must be on
an easily accessible dimmer to extend lamp life.
Use alternative sources such as compact fluorescent in place of standard
BALLASTS AND POWER SUPPLIES.
Electronic Ballasts. The use of electronic ballasts as opposed to older
technology core and coil ballasts reduces the energy requirements of fluorescent and
HID sources. The nominal wattage of a fluorescent or HID lamp is typically lower than
the wattage that the lamp/ballast system actually draws, or the "input watts". For
example, a thirty-two watt compact fluorescent lamp draws thirty-five watts through the
ballast when in operation. This input wattage is minimized with electronic ballasts.
They also have the benefits of less noise, reduced flicker, smaller size, less weight, and
lower starting temperature.