type of dock, doors should be designed to be
slightly larger than the opening of a standard
Dock space for shipping and receiving terminals is
tractor trailer and should be fitted with hoods that
the same as that for most general purpose ware-
fit around the trailer to prevent heat loss from the
houses. Dock heights on the truck side of the
work space. This method of docking requires a
terminal should be approximately 1300 mm (4 ft 4
door for every truck berth, which is an added first
in) above the pavement, with hydraulic ramps (fig
cost; but the protection and energy advantages
3-1) at each truck berth to bring the height of truck
make it a feasible alternative. Additionally, as
bed in line with the dock height. An additional type
shown in figure 3-6 receiving or shipping docks can
of dock ramp is available, as shown in figure 3-2.
be designed with recessed wells that contain the
This hooks to the truck bed and rests on the dock
entire trailer within the warehouse. This method
floor for transition of the height differential. On the
also prevents heat loss and eliminates the need for
rail side of the terminal, dock heights should be
exterior berthing space, but it utilizes much of the
1150 mm (3 ft 9 in) above the top of the rail. This
heated space for truck parking.
will ensure that the rail car floor is even with dock
floor, as shown in figure 3-3.
3-2. Column spacing.
Columns supporting the outer edge of the roof
should be so spaced as not to interfere with the
spacing of rail car doors or truck berths. Dock
widths should be wide enough to allow efficient
maneuvering of forklift trucks and other expected
types of material handling equipment. A minimum
width should be 3 m (10 ft). Forklift bumpers
should be placed at both sides of all door jambs
where forklift traffic will occur to prevent damage
to the walls, door track and the door frame.
Exterior dock space should be covered to protect
workers and material from rain and snow accumu-
lation (fig 3-4).
3-3. Truck docks.
Bumpers should be installed at the edge of the
truck dock to protect the concrete from the impact
of backing trucks. Wooden boards (fig 3-5) or
rubber pads will serve this purpose. In addition
there should be stairwells from ground level to
dock height spaced along the dock if the dock runs
the entire length of the building.
3-4. Interior dock space.
In colder climates, interior dock space may provide
significant energy savings and more tolerable win-
ter working conditions for dock workers. For this
Figure 3-1. Hydraulic dock leveler.