b) Reuse. Water reuse from or to other industrial
applications is another alternative. Vehicle washrack effluent
may be directly used in metal cleaning and painting applications,
depending on its quality, for preliminary or intermediate
cleaning and rinsing stages. Water discharged from cooling tower
bleed-off or boiler blowdown may be used for washracks after
c) Reclamation. Treated sewage effluent may also be
used but only with proper treatment and should only be used for
presoaking or first-wash stages.
d) Retrofits. To determine what retrofit or recycling
options are suitable for your facility, you need to collect field
data and perform a cost analysis (refer to the "DoD Energy
Manager's Handbook" for complete details on developing a cost
analysis). The following information will assist you in
developing the cost analysis:
(1) Daily water usage for each facility (use
flowmeters to calculate the flow volume).
Types of equipment used.
Manpower and time required for each wash and
The number of vehicles or aircraft washed
The quality of your effluent water.
Plating Facilities. The military operates a number of
plating facilities that encompass a variety of processes,
including hard chrome plating, nickel, zinc, or cadmium plating,
etching, and phosphating. Plating is a general term describing
the practice of applying a surface coating to a metal or
or for decoration. The process of plating involves several
steps, including surface preparation, plating, and post-
treatment. All of these steps incorporate rinsing procedures to
remove residues from the previous step. Rinsing uses a majority
of the water utilized in plating operations and is, therefore,
the prime target for water conservation.