conclusion. This organization parallels the architectural design process
whereby the designer begins with gross building characteristics in schematic
design, proceeds to refinements and more detail in design development, and
finally completes the design with construction documents. This handbook
provides step by step procedures for establishing the solar/thermal
characteristics of a building during schematic design and design
development. Worksheets are provided throughout as aids to the user in
following the design procedures quickly and accurately.
In 4.1, the basic concepts describing the physical characteristics and
are addressed. The cooling implications of using these systems on buildings
is also discussed in general terms. This section should provide the
background needed before proceeding to a discussion of climatic
considerations in 4.2.
In 4.2, variations in climate and the broad implications of those
variations for passive solar design are addressed. Two contour maps of the
continental United States are presented. The first map divides the country
into four climate regions based on the importance of conservation measures
for reducing the space heating load of buildings; the four regions are thus
indicative of the severity of the winter climate. The second map defines
five-climate regions on the basis of availability of solar energy as a
space heating resource. These two maps help one develop a feel for the
geographic distribution of passive solar potential because areas of high
potential are those in which severe winter conditions coincide with high
Guidelines for schematic design are presented in 4.3. These guidelines
will enable the designer to specify the gross characteristics of a building
in a manner that assures good solar/thermal performance in a specified
climate region. Alternately, the guidelines are appropriate for use as
evaluation tools during the initial screening of designs submitted by
prospective contractors. In either case, final decisions should be deferred
performed to fine tune a design under development or to evaluate each
candidate design surviving the initial screening of contractor proposals.
The introduction to design analysis (4.4) is intended to prepare the
appropriate for use during design development are presented in 5.1.
Worksheets are provided that enable the user to estimate auxiliary heat
requirements, assess potential winter overheating problems, determine the
incremental cooling load, and evaluate the cost effectiveness of the
system. Procedures for refining the design on the basis of analysis results
are reviewed in 5.2.
In 5.3, example calculations are presented that illustrate application
of the design procedures to a four plex family housing unit. This realistic
example should prepare the reader for his first experience with passive
solar design or evaluation. Finally, a summary of the important points to
remember is presented in 5.4.
This handbook should provide enough information and guidance to enable a
designer to produce cost effective, energy efficient passive solar buildings
at any point in the continental United States.