transports) along the edge of designated access ramps, aprons,
or fueling lanes with easy access by aircraft and as close to
their normal taxi routes as practical while still meeting
centerline clearance requirements. Provide facilities for
fueling aircraft with engines or support equipment running.
These systems are installed where the mission dictates a
continuing need for rapid turnaround without shutting engines
down and are located to permit quick return to the runway.
Configure taxi patterns to and from fueling stations to keep
jet blast away from people. Refer to Standard Design AW
78-24-29 for Air Force projects and NAVFAC Drawing Nos.
1404000, 1404001, 1404002, and 1404003 for Navy projects. Use
the following design criteria:
a) Outside of the limits prescribed for clear areas
by MIL-HDBK-1021/2, TM 5-803-7, and AFMAN 32-1013, locate the
equipment aboveground on a concrete slab adjacent to the edge
of an access ramp, apron, or fueling lane. Ensure that the
width of the slab and location of the equipment, including the
pantograph when retracted, with respect to the ramp, apron, or
fueling lane, does not interfere with any part of the aircraft
on its approach to or departure from the fueling station.
Equip Army and Navy hot fueling stations with an emergency dry
b) Limit the height of the equipment, including
lighting, on the slab to no more than 36 inches (900 mm) above
the elevation of the concrete pad.
c) Provide a nominal maximum flow rate for each
direct fueling station of 600 gpm (38 L/s). However, design
the system to deliver 400 gpm (25 L/s) with a nozzle pressure
of 35 psig (240 kPa). Further design consideration is that
the system must be capable of delivering 600 gpm (38 L/s)
without damaging the pumps. (In general, systems designed to
deliver 400 gpm at 35 psig have been shown to be fully capable
of delivering 600 gpm with a nozzle pressure reading of 10 to
20 psig.) Actual fueling rates for small-frame aircraft range
from 250 to 550 gpm (16 to 35 L/s). Since the actual flow
rate will vary as the nozzle back pressure varies, it is
necessary to limit the maximum nozzle pressure to 55 psig (380
kPa) at the skin of the aircraft to protect the aircraft. The
issue venturi in a pantograph is a critical component of the
direct fueling system and must be able to correctly simulate