nozzle pressure and compensate for all pressure losses up to
and including the fueling nozzle. Use maximum rates and the
number of required simultaneous refuelings for system sizing.
d) Design fueling systems for Air Force tactical
aircraft and in-shelter systems in accordance with Standard
Design AW 78-24-29, Type IV and Type V, respectively.
e) Provide at least two fueling stations, with the
system sized for a minimum flow rate of 1,200 gpm (76 L/s).
Where more than two fueling stations are required, increase
the total system rate by 600 gpm (38 L/s) for every three
additional fueling stations. Do not exceed 2,400 gpm
(152 L/s) total capacity.
f) The Air Force has two standard direct fueling
systems for fixed-wing small-frame aircraft. They are the
Type IV and Type V systems.
(1) The Type IV fueling system, commonly called
"hot pit refueling," is similar to the Type III system except
it is primarily used to refuel Air Force fighter aircraft with
engines running along the apron, ramp, or in specially
configured fueling areas. The most significant difference
between it and the Type III system is the configuration of the
loops. Refer to Standard Design AW 78-24-29 for Type IV
(2) The Type V fueling system is commonly
referred to as in-shelter refueling. It is similar to the
Type IV system except that aircraft are refueled in shelters.
This system has been primarily constructed in Europe and the
Pacific although there are Type V systems in the CONUS. Refer
to Standard Design AW 78-24-29 for Type V hydrant systems.
Large-Frame Aircraft. Locate aircraft direct
fueling stations for large aircraft (transports, cargo planes,
tankers, long-range patrol planes, and bombers) adjacent to
their normal parking positions. Use the following design
a) Individually determine the number of fueling
stations required for each activity. This depends on the
number of large aircraft based at the activity or the number
of aircraft that will need refueling as transients. To