22 August 2006
5-1.1.1 Select luminaires based on application suitability, performance, aesthetics,
and initial cost.
5-1.1.2 Select lamps based on the application, energy consumption, low
maintenance, life, and replacement costs. One source for determining costs is the
Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). (See Appendix A for contact information.)
Select ballasts based on energy consumption, low maintenance, and life.
Select controls based on the application, low maintenance, reliability, and life.
Life cycle cost analysis. There are many economic factors that need to be
considered when designing a lighting system. Life cycle costs include initial costs
(equipment procurement and installation), energy, and maintenance costs. Additional
issues involve the impact of lighting on productivity. These costs are currently not
represented in the life cycle cost analysis, but have been estimated for the total Federal
sector at .65/m2 (
.64/SF per year)1. Since this is a significant factor, quality
lighting decisions cannot be undervalued.
5-1.2.1 Initial costs: Estimate equipment quantity and unit pricing for luminaires,
lamps, ballasts and controls. Also estimate the labor cost. Do not use a percentage of
initial costs because this can be misleading. For example, installing direct/indirect linear
fluorescent pendants may be less labor since they require only one point of electrical
connection, versus individual recessed lay-in luminaires. The cost of quality lighting
equipment is very economically competitive. The Defense Logistics Agency (General
and Industrial Lighting) can be contacted for cost estimates of lighting equipment.
5-1.2.2 Energy costs: Energy costs should take into account not only the connected
lighting loads, but also the actual loads due to daylight and manual dimming, occupancy
sensors, and energy management systems. Peak power demand in most climates
occurs during the sunniest days when daylight is the most available. If the peak
demand can be lowered through controls, then the energy costs can be considerably
5-1.2.3 Maintenance costs: Life and reliability of the lighting equipment are inherent
in maintenance costs. In addition, replacement procurement and installation costs are
"Economics of Energy Effective Lighting for Offices", Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)
Lighting Resources, <http://www.eere.energy.gov/femp/resources/economics.html>