12 December 2001
COASTAL PROJECT PLANNING AND DESIGN. The type of structure
required for a particular design situation depends upon the protection required, such as
harbor protection, beach erosion control, and stabilization of an entrance channel. The
primary types of coastal structures and methods of marine improvement and shore
protection are breakwaters, jetties, revetments, bulkheads, seawalls, groins, headlands,
and beach restoration and nourishment. Paragraph 5-7 of this document provides
introductory descriptions and figures showing each of these. In many cases, more than
one type of structure may provide a possible solution. Studies of alternative solutions,
including consideration of first and annual costs, maintenance, construction methods,
and environmental impacts, should be conducted to select the most appropriate one.
Selection of the structure type requires that the foundation condition, availability of
construction materials and equipment, and probable impacts on the adjacent shores be
Planning and Design Process. The CEM, Section V-1, discusses this
topic at length. It emphasizes function of components, concepts, non-structural,
dynamic and static structures. It offers information regarding coastal zone
management, coastal armoring, sediment issues, temporary solutions, and others.
REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS. Permitting, inspection, and
enforcement activities are conducted by various organizations.
USACE. The responsibilities of USACE are outlined below:
Jurisdiction. All works located in the waters of the United States and its
territories are under the jurisdiction of the USACE. This zone is generally located
seaward from the mean high water line. A USACE permit is required for all dredging,
filling, construction, or maintenance works. The permit must be approved prior to
commencement of work. Therefore, processing of permits should be initiated well in
advance of the date work is scheduled to begin because of the lead time required to
obtain USACE permits. The USACE's jurisdiction also includes interior wetlands, rivers,
and lakes. Questions regarding the extent of the jurisdiction for specific areas inland of
the high-tide line should be addressed to the local USACE District Office.
Review Procedure. In reviewing permit applications for works in U.S.
waters, the USACE circulates the application to other Federal and local agencies. In
accordance with various executive actions, the USACE cannot, at a local level, override
the permit objections of the following:
Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Department of Commerce, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries
In addition to input by Federal agencies, input by State or regional
agencies are considered. To date, most concerns address changes in water quality