3 October 2005
Wire Ropes. Wire rope is composed of three parts: wires, strands, and a
core. The basic unit is the wire. A predetermined number of wires of the proper size
are fabricated in a uniform geometric arrangement of definite pitch or lay to form a
strand of the required diameter. The required number of strands are then laid together
symmetrically around a core to form the rope. Refer to NAVSEA
NSTM 613 for additional information. Some of the features to consider when specifying
wire rope are listed in Table 6-10.
Fenders. Fendering is used between ships and compression structures,
such as piers and wharves, in fixed moorings. Fenders act to distribute forces on ship
hull(s) and minimize the potential for damage. Fendering is also used between moored
ships. A wide variety of types of fenders are used including:
Cylindrical marine fenders
Hard rubber fenders
Specially designed structures
Composite fender piles
Plastic fender piles
Pre-stressed concrete fender piles
Camels are wider compression structures used, for example, to offset a ship from a pier
The pressure exerted on ship hulls is a key factor to consider when specifying fenders.
Allowable hull pressures on ships are discussed in NFESC TR-6015-OCN, Foam-Filled
Fender Design to Prevent Hull Damage.
Behaviors of some common types of cylindrical marine fenders are shown
in Figures 6-3 and 6-4.
Refer to MIL-HDBK-1025/1 and NAVSEA NSTM 611 for detailed
information on fenders.