22 August 2006
3-2.4.2 Current Mission, Operation and Maintenance. The lighting system must be
included in the operation and maintenance program. Also, select lighting equipment
that is appropriately durable and also makes sense with the life cycle cost analysis.
3-2.4.3 Current Mission, Soldier and Workforce Productivity and Retention. Many of
the visibility issues outlined in Chapter 2 "Lighting Design Considerations", including
daylight, glare, and surface brightness all affect occupant comfort and productivity.
3-2.4.4 Future Missions, Functional Life of Facility and Supporting Systems.
Evaluate the expected life of lighting equipment and the cost of replacement in the
building life cycle costs analysis.
3-2.4.5 Future Missions, Adaptation, Renewal and Future Uses. Consider lighting
system designs that are not dependent on current furniture layout and are flexible for
changes in use. Task / ambient lighting systems, as described in Chapter 2, "Lighting
Design Considerations", achieve this goal.
COSTS / BENEFITS. While the cost and benefit of any design strategy must
be evaluated with respect to an individual project, some issues are common to the
sustainable design of any facility.
Daylighting. Utilizing daylight to provide the light in the building has the
benefit of reducing lighting energy requirements while improving the quality of the indoor
spaces. However, it also requires a significant increase in design time and coordination
between structural, mechanical, and electrical systems. This strategy may require
additional modeling to ensure that daylight is provided without glare or increased heat
gain. This results in increased design requirements. Additionally, in DoD facilities,
Antiterrorism (AT) criteria (see UFC 4-010-01) increase the required strength of glazing.
Therefore, the addition of glazing may significantly increase the cost over a commercial
building. However, worker productivity benefits may still outweigh these costs.
Controls. Lighting controls have the benefit of reducing energy use when
lighting is not required. However, the cost of the control device increases the initial
system cost. For most applications, typical energy savings pay for control devices in
approximately 3-7 years. The time period may be less when worker satisfaction is
considered. This payback makes lighting control an attractive energy saving strategy.
It is important to note that electric lighting controls must be incorporated with a daylight
design to gain any energy savings from the daylight.
Energy Efficiency. The careful selection of light sources to utilize the most
efficient and lowest wattage light source for the application reduces energy use and
cost. This results in a significant benefit with a low cost increase. The increase in lamp
cost between incandescent sources and more efficient, longer life, fluorescent sources
is typically paid back in energy savings and replacement costs within a few years.
Materials. The mercury content of fluorescent and HID light sources poses a
significant environmental threat when sent to a landfill or incinerator. By law,
commercial and military facilities must recycle these lamps. This cost must be