19 June 2001
descriptions of types of fender systems. The maintenance of fender
systems is covered in MO-104.1.
Piling. Piling is an integral part of all open piers and wharves. The
exposure of piling makes it susceptible to severe environmental attack: corrosion,
marine borers, and erosion. Piling is made from concrete, wood, steel, or
composite materials and requires protective coatings, preservatives, or wraps to
ensure a long life.
There are four functional types of piling: vertical bearing piles, batter
piles, fender piles, and sheet piles. Bearing piles are used to support the weight
of the pier and loads on the pier. Batter piles provide lateral and longitudinal
stability. Fender piles are used to absorb the impact of berthing ships. Sheet
piling is used for various waterfront structures, e.g., quaywalls to retain fill.
Dolphins. A dolphin is a group of piles placed near piers and wharves,
or in turning basins and ship channels. These structures are used to guide
vessels into their moorings, to mark underwater structures (shoals or shore), and
to support navigational aids.
Fleet Mooring. A fleet mooring is an offshore anchoring system that
consists of various hardware items: chain, cable, sinkers, anchors, and buoys.
The offshore anchoring system is placed in a fixed location so that vessels, when
entering the port, can anchor to the buoys. NAVFAC MO-124, Mooring
Maintenance Manual provides details on the maintenance of fleet mooring
systems, therefore, they are not covered in this handbook.
Deck and Mooring Hardware. Various deck and mooring hardware,
such as gratings, handrails, bollards, bitts, cleats, chocks and rings, are used on
piers and wharves. These items require inspection and maintenance to ensure
personnel safety and adequate mooring facilities for ships.
Utility Distribution Systems. Utility distribution systems are provided
on most piers and wharves to service the ships. Utilities available at most piers
and wharves include:
Sewage and oily waste collection