19 June 2001
WOOD AND TIMBER. Wood and timber members have been used for
construction and maintenance of waterfront facilities due to availability, economy,
and ease of handling relative to other construction materials.
Common wood products used include: dimension lumber, timber, piles,
and poles. Engineered wood products such as glued and laminated timbers
(glulam) are common and, if, properly preserved or protected, may be used.
Plastics and composites can be used as substitute materials for non-load bearing
wood members. The primary applications at the waterfront include:
Older piers, wharves, bulkheads, and quaywalls built from timber
Fender systems built from timber and round timber piles.
Pile dolphins built from round timber piles.
Floats and camels built from logs, timber, dimension lumber, glued
and laminated wood, or miscellaneous forms.
Groins built from timber and round timber piles.
Maintenance. Maintenance of wooden structures involves replacing
decayed or damaged wood with properly treated wood or other suitable material.
If repairs are to be reduced in the future, exposed wood and pile caps must be
treated with an effective preservative to retain its strength and longevity against
destructive fungi, marine organisms, insects, and bacteria attack.
Many wood species are used for treated dimension lumber and timber
in the United States. Primarily, Douglas fir is used on the West Coast and
southern pine is used on the East Coast due to availability. See Unified Facilities
Guide Specification UFGS-02398N, Pier Timberwork for proper Navy
procurement and product inspection criteria of pier timber work. Round timber
piles for marine use are also usually made from Douglas fir or southern pine
according to availability and size requirements for piling. For Navy use, these
piles must conform to UFGS-02461N, Wood Marine Piles.
All wood products, including treated wood, must be inspected by
agencies certified by the American Lumber Standards Committee (ALSC) and
must be properly graded and marked before acceptance. General Navy criteria
for accepting wood products are well described in NAVFAC MO-312.2, A Field
Guide for Receipt and Inspection of Treated Wood Products by Installation
bring about rapid destruction of waterfront facilities. Improper design and